[Date Prev][Date Next][Thread Prev][Thread Next][Date Index][Thread Index]


>In fact, to bring in a parethesis, there is a massive history to the
>verb to be used corresponding to Happy.  It alludes, of course, to the
>Sermon On The Mount.  Now here are some distinct types of happiness:
>English         Esperanto               Greek (Modern)
>Fortunate       Felicxa                 Eutuxhs, Eutuxismenos
>Pleased         (Kontenta)              Euxaristhmenos
>Happy           Gaja                    Xaroumenos
>Joyful          Gxoja                   (can't think of one)
>Blissful        (Sengxena)              Makarios (cf. Latin Beatus)
>The Esp has 'Fortunate' because this makes the link between cause of
>happiness and the happiness explicit:  Gxojas tiuj, kiuj... would sound
>like their joy was incidental to their seeing God.  It would be even
>worse with Gajas tiuj, kiuj... which reads somewhat like "Those who have
>seen God are running around smiling".
>But the original Greek had Makarioi, and the Latin translation has
>Beati.  Admittedly some semantics would have been influenced by the
>Church's use of the term; but Oi Makarioi Nhsoi, the Isles of Bliss, the
>late-pagan-Greek equivalent of heaven, predates Christian theology (I
>think).  What this implies to me is that Christ meant something along
>the lines of 'They will have no worries, no disquiet', not 'they will
>run around smiling' (Happy) or 'they will run around hurrahing' (Joyful)
>or 'they will say "ain't we lucky"' (Fortunate, Pleased).
>Does le lojban [Bob:  should be 'la', its a name] distinguish between
>these happinesses (it doesn't have to, and I've heard SapirWhorfish
>mumbles against such distinctions), and which would it have picked here?

Nick gives me a reason to show off what I LOVE to do with Lojban.  In
fact, I proposed a massive effort like the following way back in the
first issue of JL, under the name 'complexing'.  In a sense, doing this
is what made ME interested in Loglan enough to tackle the dictionary
project (which is how I got started).  (I love playing with words and
their corresaponding ideas, to see how they interact.)

Jeanne C. wanted a discussion of love, but it looks like someone decided
happiness was more important.  This is the type of posting needed to
tackle such things as the multiple Lojban words for love.  But for now,
let's be happy (do happy?).  Then I'll leave it to the list to find out
how to Love Lojbanically.

First you wander through the gismu list pulling out words related to the
concept.  I didn't pull the following out in order, but about 15 minutes
gave me all of them.  You can probably find more worth using your own
lists.  As you will see, don't be picky - let your mind play word
association games.

Some key source words (I'll use the published gismu list; some places of
some of these are probably going to change, but not to significantly
affect this exercise - feel free to suggest changes, in fact):

gleki           x is happy about y                                gle gei
pluka           x pleases y                                       puk pu'a
 se pluka       x is pleased by y                              selpu'a
salci           x celebrates y                                    sal
xalbo           x is levity/non-serious about y                     -
zdile           x is amusing to y                                 zil zdi
 se zdile       x is amused by y                               selzdi

This is 5 different basic 'kinds' of happiness.  They can stand alone or
modify each other:

salci gleki     x is celebratingly-happy about y                  salgei
se zdile gleki  x is amusedly-happy about y                    selzdigei
                     one kind of enjoy, but see below

But we needn't stop here:

There are related words that are useful for specific kinds of happiness:
bebna           x is foolish in y                                 beb
cando           x is idle/at rest/inactive                        cad
cizra           x is strange/bizarre to y in z                    ciz
cunso           x is random/chance                                cun cu'o
dimna           x is the fate/destiny/doom of y                     -
 se dimna       x is doomed to y                               seldimna
fenki           x is crazy/insane in doing/being y                fek
jgira           x has pride about y                               jgi
kanro           x is healthy                                      ka'o
kufra           x is comfortable in environment y                 kuf
lifri           x experiences y                                   lif fri
lijda           x is the religion of people y with tenets z       lij jda
 se lijda       x follows religion y with tenets z             seljda
mansa           x is satisfied with y                               -
panpi           x is at peace                                     pap
pensi           x thinks about y                                  pen pei
prije           x is wise/sage about y by standard/observer z     pij
racli           x is sane/rational                                  -
ranxi           x is ironic in that y                             rax
stodi           x is constant/invariant in y                      tod sto
tarti           x behaves/conducts self as y under conditions z   tat tai
tcaci           x is the custom/habit of y under condition z      cac tca
xamgu           x is good for y by standard z                     xag xau
zabna           x is the ameliorative of y                        zan za'a

and let's be way out with

siclu           x makes whistling sound y with z                  sil
sanga           x sings y to z                                    sag
tinbe           x obeys/follows command y by z                    tib

All 24 of these can be applied as modifiers to gleki, selpu'a, selzdi,
xalbo and salci, and in some cases each other.  That gives over 120.
Many will bring to mind a situation where they would be useful.  Some,
not all will suggest an English word equivalent (or possibly to
Esperantists an Esperanto word, or to Nick, a Greek word.)  All are
valid tanru in Lojban.  All more or less mean 'happy'.  All can be made
into lujvo.  Anyone want to tackle the complete set systematically,
giving us hundreds of words for the dictionary in one fell swoop.  If
you aren't that ambitious, try a few dozen, put together as you see fit
(which may take a while) or a systematic subset (after doing this for a
few minutes, you'll find you can't write them as fast as you can analyze
them and put them together).

I'll give several examples:

bebna gleki    x is foolishly-happy about y                        bebgei
                    one kind of giddy
fenki gleki    x is crazily/insanely happy about y                 fekygei
                    another kind
zabna lifri    x Experiences! y                                    zanfri
                 enjoys (my preference for this English word in most contexts)
siclu gleki    x is whistlingly-happy about y (whistling z with w) silgei
                    (think Snow White and the 7 Dwarves)
panpi kufra    x is peacefully-comfortable in environment y        papkufra
panpi gleki    x is peacefully-happy about y                       papygei
se lijda gleki x is religiously-believing happy about y            seljdagei

And you can go the other way:

gleki panpi    x is happily-at peace (happy about y)               glepanpi
                    blissful                                       geirpanpi

Most English words will map to more than one Lojban word, because there are
SO MANY Lojban words.

For those not familiar with lujvo-making rules, the easiest form is to
replace the final vowel of all but the last word with 'y', and write
it as one word.  Thus the 'easy' form of 'bebgei' is 'bebnygleki', and
the two word versions are >absolutely the same<.

If you want to try to shorten them, the following is a short set of rules
omitting a couple of special cases that you'll rarely run into.  See the
Synopsis for complete rules.

Remember that the final rafsi must end in a vowel, incompatible
consonant junctures between affixes (voiced/unvoiced like bp, same
consonant like bb, and both fricative -cjsz, and a few others - see the
Synopsis or the back page of the Lojban-order gismu list) require a y
'hyphen' between the consonants.  Also a CVV form requires 'r' as a
hyphen in the first affix, unless immediately followed by a CCV affix
(this to form the mandatory consonant cluster - use an 'n' if the
following affix starts with 'r')

Not enough?

We have intensities:
carmi           x is intense in y                                 cam cai
milxe           x is mild/gentle/unextreme in property y          mli
mleca           x is less than y in property z by amount w        mec me'a
mutce           x is toward the y extreme in property z           mut mu'e
traji           x is superlative in property y                    taj rai
zmadu           x is more than y in property z by amount w        zad zma mau

carmi gleki     x is intensely-happy about y                      camgei
                     implies a particularly emphatic happiness
mutce gleki     x is very-happy about y                           mu'egle
                     a little broader happiness than camgei, but still extreme
gleki zmadu     x is happy-more than y is (about z by amount w)   glemau or
                     happier                                      geizma
zmadu gleki     x is more-happy about y (than z is by amount w)   maugle or
se gleki zmadu  x is happy_making-more than y (than z is by amt w) selgeimau
  which can then be converted without lujvo making to:
se selgeimau    x is made-happy-more by y than by z by amt w
                a proper and fairly exact lujvo is             selkemselgeimau
                but the following will probably be adopted        selselgeimau
                because any other interpretation of selsel is a nullity

Finally, we can also define happiness in terms of what it is not, or
what it lacks:

to'e            polar opposite (c.f. Esperanto mal- ?)       to'e
no'e            neutral scalar negation                      no'e
badri           x is sad/depressed about y                        dri
claxu           x lacks/is without y                              cax cau
dunku           x is anguished/distressed by y                    duk du'u
fanza           x annoys/irritates/bothers y by doing/being z     faz
 se fanza       x is annoyed by y doing/being z                selfanza
fengu           x is angry at y for z                             feg fe'u
junri           x is serious about y                              jur
pante           x protests/objects/complains to y about z by doing w     -
raktu           x troubles/disturbs y by z                        ra'u
 se raktu       x is troubled by y doing z                     selra'u
steba           x feels frustration about y under conditions z    seb
xanka           x is nervous/anxious about y                        -

to'e badri      x is polar-opposite of sad/depressed about y      to'erdri
to'e pante      x opposite-of-protests to y about z by doing w    to'erpante
                  compliments y ...
no'e pante      x doesn't-protest to y about z by doing           no'erpante
                  has nothing to complain about to y
                  is a reasonable interpretation of this as a lujvo,
                  but there may be others
se raktu claxu  x is troubled-lacking of y doing z                selra'ucau
                  a specific kind of bliss or serenity suggesting:
                     blissfully unaware of y doing z

and I'll close by listing some others Jim Brown had in his old
dictionary, which I don't always agree with (a version of his 'English
equivalent' in parentheses):

gleki culno     x is happy-full of y  (x is joyful about y)        geiclu
gleki xendo     x is happy-kind towards y (x hearty/warm-hearted toward y)
gleki rinka     x is happy-causer of y  (x cheers y up giving)     gleri'a
 se rinka gleki x is causedly happy about y by cause z             selgleri'a
                          (x is cheered up/cheerful about y cheered by z)
(which we can use other causals in:)
 se mukti gleki x is motivatedly-happy about y by motive z         selglemu'i
 se krinu gleki x is justifiedly happy about y with reason z       selgleki'u
   or even
 se nibli gleki x is logically-necessitated to be happy about y by logic z (?!)

Now its your turn.  Let's see someone else post a few (dozen) for comment.